||Very effective in removing soluble aluminum. Adsorption influenced by pH and retention time. Best results at ph 7 or above.|
|ARSENIC||Largely dependent upon form of arsenic (ie. AsIII or AsV). pH has considerable influence. At low pH almost no adsorption occurs. Affected by Protonation.|
|CADMIUM||Bone char is better than conventional precipitation and/or coagulation processes. Superior results in soft water. Retention time on par with aluminum.|
||Much dependent upon form present, ie. cation or anion, and valency (chrome III or chrome VI). Chrome III adsorbs well.|
|COPPER||Adsorption dependent upon pH and retention time.|
|IRON||Dependent upon form of iron. Better results with organic iron than with inorganic. Inorganic results dependent upon valency. Short retention times suffice.|
|LEAD||Very effective with short retention time (ie. 1 minute or less)|
||Very effective. Pilot results good. Competition from other methods of oxidation.|
|MERCURY||Best with organic mercury. Inorganic mercury is dependent upon valency (mercury I and II). Although similar, the higher charged monatomic mercury II has a greater affinity for Bone Char than mercury I.|
|NICKEL||Adsorption best at higher pH. Requires high retention time. At 5 pH almost no adsorption.|
|SILVER||Quite rapidly adsorbed. Better at low concentrations in solute. High deposits of silver on bone char inhibit adsorption. Adsorption better at pH 5.|
||Efficiency dictated by contact time and pH. Both pilot plant and full scale plant performance good.|
|BROMINE||Bone Char is effective in removing free bromine. Bromine form is important too. In presence of potassium and sodium adsorption decreases.|
|Bone Char is minimally effectively in reducing chlorine or chloramine.
|COLOR||Retention time required is usually about 6 – 15 minutes, dependent upon chemical make up of color. Can be used in slow sand, rapid gravity or pressure filters.|
|FLUORIDE||Adsorption onto Bone Char is good, but influenced by pH – better at 6.5 or lower. Concentrations of fluoride present also influences performance. Activated carbons do not effectively adsorb fluoride.|
Good at removing organo-chlorine pesticides (ie. Dieldrin, septachlor, etc.). not very good at atrazine, etc.
|•||Bone Char 20X60 mesh
BONE CHAR (20x60)
BONE CHAR 20x60 is a unique granular natural carbon media produced from aged bones. It’s surface area and base material lends itself to the adsorption of a range of heavy metals including lead, aluminum, manganese, silver as well as non-metals such as fluoride and bromine. Can be used in numerous bone char water filter designs and in combination with standard granular activated charcoal filter.